September 23, 2020


Kieran Harrahill

As Ireland continues to look back upon the events which shaped its national development during the decade of commemorations, there are many who look to the near future with feelings of great hope and aspiration. Just as the Easter Rising of 1916 was a critical juncture which laid the foundations for the establishment of the First Dáil and the declaration of a Republic, events 100 years on have created the opportunity to work towards the inclusion of the entirety of the island within a republic, independent of governance from Westminster.

It is apparent that the decision of the British Conservative party to hastily hold a referendum on their membership of the European Union has resulted in their failure to prepare appropriately for its outcomes. It has also mitigated any argument that the material well-being and the defence of civil and religious liberties of the people in the six most north-eastern counties is best placed by maintaining membership of the United Kingdom. From the events that have transpired over the past four years, it is apparent that the voices of the representatives of Ireland, whether they are Nationalist or Unionist in orientation, have little bearing on the decisions made by leading figures in Westminster.

While history may appear to be beckoning, it is evident that holding a referendum based on a vague national aspiration with little preparation as to what will occur if successful can lead to instances of deep uncertainty. While polling indicates that support for Irish unity is growing, it is apparent that holding a referendum without a clear plan for what would occur next could result in Ireland becoming an even more divided island. The intention of this document is to provide a guide to policy matters which require careful consideration and clear responses in order to ensure certainty regarding all aspects of governance and life in Ireland. This will ensure that individuals and groups who remain sceptical of the benefits or functionality of a United Irish Republic have a clear answer to their area of concern.

While this document contains over 600 questions relating to factors which require deliberation, input from all the people who live upon this island and agreed solutions in order to ensure a seamless transition from a divide to a united Ireland, it is not an exhaustive list. It should be noted that these questions are largely based on those which featured in the Scotland’s Future report published prior to the Scottish independence referendum of 2014. For this reason, aspects relating to the role of certain government departments and particular policy strategies will need further elaboration and consideration.

You can download the entire document here in Word format or PDF format. Use the menu below to navigate through the questions. There is a back to menu button on the bottom right hand corner to bring you back to the menu from anywhere on the page.




buy generic disulfiram 1.1. Background to the referendum

1.1.1. Why is Ireland having a referendum on unification?
1.1.2. What is the benefit of Irish unity?
1.1.3. Why is Irish unity important?
1.1.4. What will Irish unity mean for me?
1.1.5. How will Ireland become united?
1.1.6. Why should I vote yes for unity? 1.2. The Referendum

1.2.1. What question is being asked?
1.2.2. How was the referendum question decided?
1.2.3. Was a broad array of views considered prior to finalising plans for the referendum?
1.2.4. When is the referendum going to be?
1.2.5. Who can vote in the referendum?
1.2.6. How do I register to vote?
1.2.7. How will people know their voting rights?
1.2.8. How and where can I cast my vote?
1.2.9. Do a certain number of people have to vote for the result to count?
1.2.10. How will the referendum be run? 1.2.11. How much will the referendum cost to run?

1.3. Informing my vote

1.3.1. What is the Irish Government’s position on the referendum?
1.3.2. What is the Stormont Executive’s position on the referendum?
1.3.3. What is the Westminster Government’s position on the referendum?
1.3.4. What is the position of overseas governments and international organisations on the referendum?
1.3.5. What information is available to me to help me decide how to vote?
1.3.6. Who will regulate the campaign?
1.3.7. Are there restrictions on how much can be spent on campaigning?
1.3.8. What legal advice has the Irish Government received relating to the issues raised by unification?
1.3.9. How has this been used to develop this guide? 1.3.10. Will there be other government documents that can help me inform my vote?
1.3.11. What are Ireland’s Constitutional Arrangements now?
1.3.12. In what sense would Ireland be united if the result of the referendum is yes?
1.3.13. How is this different from the current position?
1.3.14. What does “sovereignty of the people of Ireland” mean?
1.3.15. How is this different from the existing position of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland?
1.3.16. Will a united Ireland cause disruption to the economy and society?
1.3.17. Is unification about democracy?
1.3.18. What are the current powers of Dáil Éireann and the Stormont Assembly?
1.3.19. What powers are currently reserved to the Westminster Parliament that the Stormont Assembly cannot influence?
1.3.20. Have other countries undergone processes of reunification in recent years?

1.4. Following a Vote for Unification

1.4.1. What will happen if a majority vote for unity?
1.4.2. When will Ireland be re-united as a single country?
1.4.3. How long will the transition from two sets of institutions, currencies and parliaments to one covering all of Ireland take?
1.4.4. Is this enough time to get everything in place?
1.4.5. What will happen between the referendum and unification being declared?
1.4.6. Who will be the first Government of a united Ireland?
1.4.7. If Northern Ireland votes for unification, would Northern Ireland still be eligible to vote in the next UK General Election?

1.5. Negotiations with the British Government

1.5.1. Who will negotiate for unification in discussions with the British Government?
1.5.2. Who will negotiate for the British Government?
1.5.3. Is there any precedent for negotiations between the Irish and Westminster Governments?
1.5.4. What needs to be agreed before Ireland can be re-united?
1.5.5. What say will the people have in the unification settlement?
1.5.6. Are you confident that the unification negotiations will go smoothly? 1.5.7. Why should discussions on unification between the Irish and Westminster Governments take place ahead of the referendum?
1.5.8. Will a united Ireland pay its fair share of shared liabilities?
1.5.9. Will Dáil Éireann, the Stormont Assembly or Westminster make the laws that provide for unification?
1.5.10. Will laws need to be passed at Westminster and the Stormont Assembly as well as Dáil Éireann?
1.5.11. Will it cost too much to be united?

1.6. Following a No vote

1.6.1. What happens if there is a majority in favour of No?
1.6.2. Doesn’t Northern Ireland have control over its affairs already?
1.6.3. If Ireland votes No, will there be another referendum on unification at a later date?

1.7. Ireland as a United Country

1.7.1. What will be the territory of Ireland?
1.7.2. On what basis will a united Ireland’s maritime boundaries be defined?
1.7.3. What will happen on the day of unification?
1.7.4. What will Ireland’s laws be on the first day of unification?
1.7.5. Won’t existing Irish and British laws on reserved matters such as tax or welfare need to be re-written entirely?

1.8. After Unification

1.8.1. What will happen when Ireland is re-united?
1.8.2. What will happen to Northern Irish MPs and members of the House of Lords in Westminster after unification?
1.8.3. When will the first general election of a United Irish Republic take place?

1.9. Ireland’s Constitution

1.9.1. What is a constitution and why does it matter?
1.9.2. What is the UK constitution now?
1.9.3. What do other countries do?
1.9.4. Why is a written constitution a good thing?
1.9.5. Should a united Ireland have a written constitution?
1.9.6. When will the constitution of a united Ireland be written? 1.9.7. What should be in the written constitution?
1.9.8. How will the constitution be prepared?
1.9.9. Will individual people be directly involved in shaping the constitution?
1.9.10. When will the process start?
1.9.11. How long will the development of a new constitution take?
1.9.12. What would be the process for the permanent written constitution to become law?
1.9.13. What will happen to the Good Friday Agreement?

1.10. Head of State

1.10.1. Who will be head of state in a united Ireland?
1.10.2. How will they be elected?
1.10.3. How long will the presidential term be?
1.10.4. Will the President before unification be the same after unification?
1.10.5. Can people in a united Ireland still receive honours from the British Monarch?

1.11. State Institutions and Symbols

1.11.1. What will the official name of the country be after unification?
1.11.2. What will Ireland’s flag be and what will happen to the Union Flag?
1.11.3. What will Ireland’s national anthem be?
1.11.4. What will our national languages be?
1.11.5. What will be the position of churches and religion in a united Ireland?
1.11.6. What will be done to protect civil and religious liberties?

1.12. Government in a united Ireland

1.12.1. Will a united Ireland lead to more stable forms of government?
1.12.2. Will public services continue to be delivered after unification?
1.12.3. Who owns the public services that the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland run now?
1.12.4. What will happen to Northern Irish services that are run from elsewhere in the UK?
1.12.5. Are there UK services that are run from Northern Ireland?
1.12.6. Will the Irish government take on responsibility for delivering services in a united Ireland?
1.12.7. Will there be institutions we will share with the UK on a long-term basis? 1.12.8. How many public bodies are there currently in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland?
1.12.9. How has the number of public bodies changed in recent years?
1.12.10. How will unification affect public bodies?
1.12.11. What impact will unification have on the institutions established in the Good Friday Agreement?
1.12.12. What will unification mean for the production of official and national statistics?
1.12.13. Will freedom of information and data protection be regulated in a united Ireland?

1.13. Parliament and Elections

1.13.1. What will the parliamentary system be in a united Ireland?
1.13.2. What will the electoral system be in a united Ireland?
1.13.3. Will there be compulsory voting in a united Ireland?
1.13.4. What will revenues raised from people not voting be used for?
1.13.5. Who would have voting rights after unification?
1.13.6. Who can stand for election after unification?
1.13.7. What will be the name of elected Members of Parliament?
1.13.8. How many Members of Parliament will there be?
1.13.9. How many Westminster Members of Parliament does Northern Ireland currently have?
1.13.10. What will be the name of the Parliament in a united Ireland?
1.13.11. Where will the Parliament be located?
1.13.12. What will happen to Stormont after unification?
1.13.13. Will there be a petition of concern in the Irish parliament after unification?
1.13.14. Will salaries and expenses change after unification?
1.13.15. Will the Irish Parliament need a bigger budget after unification?
1.13.16. Will the Irish Parliament have a second chamber?
1.13.17. Will Ireland have an Irish Electoral Commission after unification?
1.13.18. Will there be different political parties in a united Ireland?

1.14. Structure and Capacity of Government

1.14.1. What will be the name of the Head of Government in a united Ireland? 1.14.2. How many Ministers will there be in the Government?
1.14.3. Will Ministers’ salaries and expenses change after unification?
1.14.4. Will there be a bigger Irish Government after unification?
1.14.5. Will a united Ireland replicate all the different departments operated by the Irish Government?
1.14.6. How many people currently work for the Irish Government and the agencies?
1.14.7. How many people in Northern Ireland work in the Stormont Assembly and for the Westminster Government?
1.14.8. Will unification create more jobs or reduce the number of jobs in the Irish public sector?
1.14.9. What will happen to the people working in Northern Ireland for the Westminster Government on unification?
1.14.10. How many civil servants will a united Ireland employ?
1.14.11. How much will it cost to set up the new public services that a united Ireland will require?
1.14.12. Will the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (the TUPE Regulations) apply to transfers of staff from the Westminster Government and the Stormont Assembly to the Irish Government on unification?
1.14.13. What will happen to jobs which were previously duplicated during partition?


2.1. Agriculture, Food and Rural Communities

2.1.1. How will unification affect the support that Irish farmers receive under Europe’s Common Agriculture Policy (CAP)?
2.1.2. How will unification affect support for rural development that businesses and communities receive through the CAP?
2.1.3. What will happen to CAP payments to farmers in a united Ireland?
2.1.4. Will the transition to unification disrupt CAP payments to farmers?
2.1.5. When will Northern Irish farmers receive their first CAP payment after unification?
2.1.6. What new regulations will be introduced to harmonise agriculture in Ireland in terms of testing, inspection and herd management?
2.1.7. How will Ireland’s interests be prioritised at the Council of Ministers for Agriculture and Fisheries?
2.1.8. How will Ireland’s fishing quotas be determined following unification?
2.1.9. Will the management of Ireland’s quotas be any different in a united Ireland?
2.1.10. Will Irish fishing fleets still be able to declare their catch in England?
2.1.11. Will vessels from other EU Member States, still be able to fish in Irish waters andvice versa?
2.1.12. Will vessels from the UK be able to fish in Irish waters and vice versa?
2.1.13. How will unification affect Ireland’s relationship with the European Common Fisheries Policy (CFP)?
2.1.14. What impact will unification have on the ability of Irish food and drink producers to sell their produce to a UK and EU markets?


3.1. Poverty

3.1.1. What makes you think a united Ireland will be a fairer country?
3.1.2. Will unity mean Ireland will become a fairer society?
3.1.3. How might an all-island approach to tackling poverty be different? 3.1.4. How could a united Ireland avoid poverty rising, as well as redressing its effects?
3.1.5. How will child poverty and youth unemployment be tackled in a united Ireland?

3.2. Early Learning and Childcare

3.2.1. Could a united Ireland provide childcare at a reasonable cost?
3.2.2. What would unification mean for early learning and childcare?
3.2.3. What will maternity and paternity rights, and flexible parental leave look like in a united Ireland?
3.2.4. What will the status of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) be in a united Ireland?
3.2.5. What benefits would unification bring for young people in Ireland?

3.3. Integration

3.3.1. What steps will be taken to further strengthen cross-community relations and end sectarianism and other forms prejudice in a united Ireland?
3.3.2. What can be done to ensure that diversity is seen as something to celebrate rather than a threat?
3.3.3. Will the peace walls be brought down?
3.3.4. Will the 12 th of July still be a public holiday?
3.3.5. Will there be a parades commission in a united Ireland?
3.3.6. What steps will be taken to ensure that all people, from all backgrounds will feel that they are an integral part to life in a united Ireland?
3.3.7. What will be done to remove symbols of division such as the painting of curbs?

3.4. Immigration

3.4.1. What will unification mean for immigration in Ireland?
3.4.2. What will a united Ireland’s policy be on immigration? How will it be different from current policies in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland?
3.4.3. I am living in Northern Ireland on a UK visa, what would happen to me at day one of unification? Would I need to get an Irish visa straight away?
3.4.4. Do you know how many immigrants would come to Ireland after unification and how would Ireland control this? Would there be a cap on the number of migrants who can come to Ireland?
3.4.5. Is there a danger that those who have been denied permission to stay in the UK because of their stricter policies would move to Ireland? 3.4.6. Do immigrants put a strain on public services?
3.4.7. How will a united Ireland’s policy on immigration impact on the diversity of Ireland as a nation?
3.4.8. Will increased immigration breakdown community cohesion?
3.4.9. How will immigration rules at ports be enforced in a united Ireland?

3.5. Asylum

3.5.1. What will unification mean for asylum policy in Ireland?
3.5.2. What makes asylum seekers different from other migrants that come to Ireland?
3.5.3. Will a united Ireland attract more asylum seekers than the UK?
3.5.4. Will failed asylum seekers be detained?
3.5.5. Will failed asylum seekers be forcibly removed?

3.6. Citizenship

3.6.1. What will unification mean for citizenship in Ireland?
3.6.2. What would being citizen mean and how would I prove that I am an Irish citizen? Would there be a registration process?
3.6.3. What different routes to citizenship will exist and who will qualify for these?
3.6.4. Must I be an Irish citizen? Can I opt out of Irish citizenship and retain my British citizenship?
3.6.5. Can I have both Irish and British citizenship?
3.6.6. As an Irish citizen could I still visit or live in the UK easily?
3.6.7. Would Ireland’s rules be different from British citizenship rules?
3.6.8. Who would qualify for citizenship by descent?

3.7. Equality and Human Rights

3.7.1. Will I still have the same rights, including protection against discrimination, in a united Ireland?
3.7.2. How will the rights and protection guaranteed by existing equality legislation be maintained?
3.7.3. How will human rights be protected in a united Ireland?
3.7.4. Will there be a closer alignment between equality and human rights in a united Ireland?
3.7.5. What about future developments? Are there plans to extend existing legislation or establish new rights? 3.7.6. Will the rights of people in Ireland differ from the UK after unification? And what will happen if current human rights or equality legislation change before the date of unification?
3.7.7. Will unification mean more equality across public appointments in Ireland?

3.8. Charities and the Third Sector

3.8.1. Will the third sector be supported in a united Ireland?
3.8.2. Will UK-wide/cross-border charities still be able to operate in a united Ireland?
3.8.3. How will charities be regulated in a united Ireland?
3.8.4. Will UK-based charitable trusts still fund and support the work of charities operating in a united Ireland?
3.8.5. Will charities continue to benefit from relief on charitable donations after unification?
3.8.6. Can charities get involved in the referendum process?


4.1. Energy Regulation

4.1.1. How will services such as energy, post, telecommunications, rail and water be regulated in a united Ireland? 4.1.2. How will the energy market in a united Ireland be regulated?
4.1.3. Will unification allow Ireland to have greater influence on key regulatory matters, such as energy prices?
4.1.4. Will a united Ireland be able to take steps to ensure that consumers’ interests are taken into account when energy policy is set?

4.2. Rail

4.2.1. What will unification mean for Ireland’s rail services?
4.2.2. Will Irish Rail and NI Rail merge in a united Ireland?
4.2.3. What will happen to rail fares in Ireland after unification?
4.2.4. Will unification support the development of high-speed rail and the development of greater levels of rail connectivity in the North and West of Ireland?
4.2.5. What will happen to NI Rail’s debt?
4.2.6. If I buy a travel pass or season ticket before unification that continues into unification will it be valid for the whole period?
4.2.7. How will Network Rail be regulated in a united Ireland?

4.3. Roads

4.3.1. Who will be responsible for the road network in a united Ireland?
4.3.2. Will further road tolls be introduced in a united Ireland?

4.4. Buses and Trams

4.4.1. Who will be responsible for public transport, such as buses and trams, in a united Ireland?

4.5. Aviation

4.5.1. What will happen to Air Passenger Duty in a united Ireland?
4.5.2. Will a United Ireland protect links to London airports?
4.5.3. Will there be more direct flights into a united Ireland?
4.5.4. How will air traffic services be managed in a united Ireland?
4.5.5. Will a united Ireland still be covered by the Irish Aviation Authority?
4.5.6. How will an Irish aviation regulator be funded?

4.6. Freight

4.6.1. What will unification mean for regulation of the road freight sector in Ireland?
4.6.2. Would relevant regulations be aligned with the UK? 4.6.3. What effect would unification have on the movement of goods by road between Ireland and the UK, and between Ireland and other countries?

4.7. Motoring Services

4.7.1. Will a united Ireland result in new driver and vehicle licencing and a new driving standards agency?
4.7.2. Will we need to reapply for driving licences if Ireland is re-united?
4.7.3. Will there be new license plates?
4.7.4. Will a united Ireland change the UK legislation for bus, coach and lorry drivers’ Certificate of Professional Competence training?

4.8. Ferries

4.8.1. How will ferry services be managed in a united Ireland?

4.9. Maritime

4.9.1. How will maritime services be delivered in a united Ireland? What will change in maritime functions with unification?
4.9.2. Will a united Ireland remain a member of international organisations like the International Maritime Organisation and the International Civil Aviation Organisation when re-united?
4.9.3. Will the Royal National Lifeboat Institution continue to provide services?
4.9.4. Will Ireland register ships?
4.9.5. Will the standards for vessels be the same as the UK?
4.9.6. Will there be any changes to the operation or structure of harbour authorities?

4.10. Regulation of Outer Space Activity in a united Ireland

4.10.1. Will Ireland continue to participate in international space agencies?
4.10.2. Will Northern Irish businesses be able to compete for contracts to the UK Space Agency?

4.11. Videogame regulation

4.11.1. Will a united Ireland use the Republic of Ireland’s videogame age rating system?

4.12. Weights and measures

4.12.1. Would a united Ireland develop its own legislation on weights and measures, and would this be metric or imperial?

4.13. Time

4.13.1. What impact will unification have on the time zone that applies in Ireland?

4.14. Fossil fuels

4.14.1. How extensive are Ireland’s oil and gas reserves?
4.14.2. Is it Ireland’s oil and gas?
4.14.3. How valuable are the expected tax revenues from oil and gas production?
4.14.4. Is continued oil and gas production consistent with Ireland’s commitments on climate change?

4.15. Alternative Fuels

4.15.1. Will a united Ireland pursue alternative fuel sources and supply, such as ‘fracking’ and shale gas exploration?
4.15.2. Will there be nuclear power generation in a united Ireland?

4.16. Oil and Gas Emissions

4.16.1. Will a United Ireland be able to meet statutory climate change targets?
4.16.2. Will carbon capture and storage be developed in a united Ireland?

4.17. Energy Markets

4.17.1. Will there continue to be an all-island single market for energy and gas?

4.18. Energy Prices for Consumers

4.18.1. What effect will unification have on energy prices?
4.18.2. Will unification help to address fuel poverty?

4.19. Low Carbon Energy

4.19.1. Will a united Ireland maintain current levels of support for renewable energy?
4.19.2. What will the transmission charging regime be in a united Ireland?
4.19.3. How will unification impact on Ireland’s targets for decarbonised electricity generation in Ireland?
4.19.4. How will the EU’s renewable energy targets be apportioned when a united Ireland becomes a member state?
4.19.5. What measures will be taken to reduce dependence on imported, pollutant sources of energy?

4.20. Environment and Climate Change

4.20.1. What priority will be given to protecting the environment in a united Ireland?
4.20.2. How will a united Ireland manage its nuclear waste on its coasts?
4.20.3. Will a united Ireland increase the rate of carbon tax?
4.20.4. What measures will be put in place to minimise the production of waste?

4.21. Met Office

4.21.1. What will happen to Met Office services in a united Ireland?

4.22. Postal Service

4.22.1. Will postal services in a united Ireland be privately managed or publicly managed?
4.22.2. What colour will the post boxes be?
4.22.3. Will the price for stamps be higher in a united Ireland than current prices?

4.23. Communications

4.23.1. Will I have to pay roaming charges on my mobile phone in the UK?
4.23.2. Will I have to pay international rates to phone the UK on a landline?
4.23.3. Will my home phone number change as a result of unification?
4.23.4. What will the international dialling code be for a united Ireland?
4.23.5. Will 3G, 4G and 5G internet still be available on my mobile phone in a united Ireland?
4.23.6. What impact will unification have on investment in broadband infrastructure and in satellite broadband technologies?
4.23.7. What will happen to the UK internet domain name registration process?
4.23.8. Will there be a telecommunications regulator in a united Ireland?
4.23.9. What approach will be taken to spectrum management and licensing and the universal service obligation in a united Ireland?

4.24. IT Infrastructure and Data

4.24.1. What arrangements will be made to move systems with existing Westminster Government departments which currently hold data on individuals, such as on social security and tax systems?
4.24.2. Will unification mean there will be extra costs in terms of IT systems for public services?


5.1. Schools

5.1.1. What would unification mean for the education system in Ireland?
5.1.2. Will the curriculum for primary schools, secondary schools and third level education change?
5.1.3. Will there still be a Junior Certificate, Leaving Certificate/ GCSE and A-Levels in a
united Ireland?
5.1.4. What educational rights would people expect in a united Ireland? 5.1.5. What will unification mean for denominational schools?
5.1.6. Will interdenominational education be promoted in a united Ireland?
5.1.7. What will unification mean for skills and training in Ireland?
5.1.8. Will Irish be a compulsory subject in all schools in a united Ireland?
5.1.9. Will history and geography be compulsory subjects in all schools in a united Ireland?
5.1.10. What impact will unification have on teacher pay and conditions?
5.1.11. What impact will unification have on teacher-pupil ratios?


6.1. Business

6.1.1. How can a united Ireland improve business growth?
6.1.2. Will a united Ireland still trade with the UK?
6.1.3. Will financial services firms still be able to operate across the UK and EU?
6.1.4. Will Ireland keep its trading relationships in Europe and across the world?
6.1.5. Will a united Ireland improve exports?
6.1.6. Will Irish industries be promoted in the EU?
6.1.7. Will companies be able to make a public share offering in a united Ireland? 6.1.8. Would companies based in Ireland still be able to float on the London stock exchange?
6.1.9. Will a united Ireland need new systems for trading on international financial and stock markets?
6.1.10. How will unity help Irish businesses to win public sector contracts?
6.1.11. What will happen to Northern Irish firms dependent on the UK market if other countries (such as England, Wales and Scotland) begin favouring their locally domiciled companies?
6.1.12. Will unification impose burdens on businesses by making them deal with another regulator in a united Ireland?
6.1.13. What would an Irish Government do to support Irish companies to win contracts in export markets?
6.1.14. What will happen to the IDA, Enterprise Ireland and their Northern equivalents?

6.2. Employment

6.2.1. How would unity help create jobs?
6.2.2. What will happen as a result of unification to people in Northern Ireland employed by companies from other parts of the UK?
6.2.3. What will the national minimum wage in a united Ireland be?
6.2.4. Will a living wage be introduced?
6.2.5. How would the labour market work more effectively in a united Ireland?
6.2.6. What difference would unification make to laws on unfair dismissal, employment tribunals, industrial relations and trade union rules?

6.3. Employers

6.3.1. Why should companies base their headquarters in a united Ireland?
6.3.2. Will businesses in Northern Ireland still be able to brand their products as ‘British made’?
6.3.3. Will intellectual property rights be protected?
6.3.4. Will unification offer improved intellectual property services?

6.4. Entrepreneurs and self-employed

6.4.1. What supports will be available for self-employed and Small and Medium Enterprises?
6.4.2. What can be done to increase Venture Capital Investment in a united Ireland? 6.4.3. How could commercialisation of research be enhanced in a united Ireland?

6.5. Consumer protections

6.5.1. Will a united Ireland be able to offer consumers the same level of protection as the UK currently does?
6.5.2. When consumers are harmed, will there be systems in place to help them?
6.5.3. Will new regulatory bodies be established to protect consumers?
6.5.4. Will steps be taken to ensure all consumers, including the most vulnerable, will be able to access independent advice and education when they need it?
6.5.5. How will unification help consumers in practice?
6.5.6. After unification, would consumers who suffer damage as a result of cross-border sales with the rest of the UK be protected?
6.5.7. Will a united Ireland continue to protect consumers and businesses from unfair trading practices, such as price fixing?

6.6. Customs

6.6.1. Will unification have a negative effect on trade between Ireland and the UK and Europe?


7.1. The economy

7.1.1. Can Ireland afford to unity?
7.1.2. How would Irish unity benefit the island’s economy?
7.1.3. Will a united Ireland continue to use the Central Bank of Ireland?

7.2. Currency

7.2.1. What currency will be used in a united Ireland? What are its benefits?
7.2.2. Will a united Ireland have control over fiscal policy?
7.2.3. Will a united Ireland have control over monetary policy? 7.2.4. How will Northern Ireland convert from using Sterling to using Euro?

7.3. Fiscal Sustainability

7.3.1. Is Ireland a prosperous island?
7.3.2. What will a united Ireland’s share of UK national debt be and how will it repay it?
7.3.3. Would a united Ireland increase national debt in an attempt to grow the economy?
7.3.4. Will Ireland have a sovereign wealth fund?
7.3.5. Is Ireland’s economy dependent on overseas corporation tax?

7.4. Taxes and Taxation

7.4.1. How would a united Ireland use tax powers?
7.4.2. What will tax rates be in a united Ireland?
7.4.3. Will there be different tax rates in the North and South after unity?
7.4.4. Would the current rates and thresholds for personal income tax be altered or would there be any significant changes in the rates of insurance premium tax, VAT or employers’ National Insurance contributions?
7.4.5. How much tax does Northern Ireland currently pay into the UK?
7.4.6. Will the way I pay tax change if Ireland is united?
7.4.7. How would a united Ireland improve on the UK tax system?
7.4.8. How will tax collection be improved in a united Ireland?
7.4.9. How long will it take to set up a united Irish tax system following unity?
7.4.10. How much will it cost Ireland to run its own tax system?
7.4.11. Will I pay more tax after unity?
7.4.12. How will taxes be administered for businesses with headquarters in Northern Ireland but offices in England or elsewhere?
7.4.13. Will taxpayers with overseas interests be protected from double taxation after unification?
7.4.14. What tax relief would be available to specific sectors in a united Ireland?
7.4.15. Would the fuel duty rate be altered following unification?
7.4.16. Who would be liable to pay Irish taxes?

7.5. Banks

7.5.1. What impact will unification have on the branches of British banks in Northern Ireland? 7.5.2. Could a united Ireland protect depositors on the same basis as the UK deposit guarantee scheme?

7.6. Lender of last resort

7.6.1. Who will be the lender of last resort to Irish financial institutions?

7.7. Macroeconomic

7.7.1. What credit rating would a united Ireland have?
7.7.2. What will the cost of government borrowing be in a united Ireland?
7.7.3. How will a united Ireland boost the economy when there are pressures on public finances?
7.7.4. What deficit will a united Ireland inherit and how would this be managed?

7.8. Personal Finances

7.8.1. Will people in a united Ireland still have access to a wide choice of financial products and services?
7.8.2. Will unification affect my mortgage rate?
7.8.3. Will Real Estate Investment Trusts continue in a united Ireland?
7.8.4. How will my bank account be affected by unification?
7.8.5. Will I still have access to banks and banking services based in the UK?
7.8.6. Will bank deposits and other financial products still be protected?

7.9. Financial Regulation

7.9.1. How will financial services be regulated in a united Ireland?
7.9.2. Who would be responsible for financial stability?
7.9.3. Who will regulate financial conduct?
7.9.4. Does Ireland have the necessary experience to deliver economic regulation?

7.10. Private Pensions

7.10.1. Will my private pension benefits be protected?
7.10.2. What will the Irish Government do to help people save for retirement?
7.10.3. Will the Irish Government improve information and advice on private pensions?
7.10.4. Will automatic enrollment of employees into a workplace pension continue?
7.10.5. Will employees and employers continue to have access to the National Employment Savings Trust?
7.10.6. Will tax relief on private pensions and salary sacrifice continue in a united Ireland? 7.10.7. Will people with pensions in the rest of the UK be affected by exchange rate fluctuations when all of Ireland moves to the Euro?
7.10.8. Will there be an Irish Pensions Regulator?
7.10.9. Will private pensions be protected in a united Ireland?
7.10.10. Will consumers in Ireland have access to a pension’s ombudsman?
7.10.11. How will deficits in defined benefit private pension schemes be addressed in a united Ireland?
7.10.12. What will happen to existing UK-wide pension schemes?


8.1. International Relations and External Affair

8.1.1. What will the relationship be between a united Ireland and the United Kingdom?
8.1.2. Will unification mean that Irish people require a passport to travel to Great Britain?
8.1.3. Will Ireland still be a member of the European Union?
8.1.4. Would a united Ireland’s voice in Europe be weaker or stronger?
8.1.5. Will a united Ireland be forced to join the Euro?
8.1.6. When will Ireland begin negotiations a united Ireland’s place in the EU?
8.1.7. How long would the process of Northern Ireland re-entering into the EU take? 8.1.8. Will a united Ireland’s membership of the EU require the agreement of all member states?
8.1.9. Will a united Ireland continue to qualify for a European rebate?
8.1.10. What impact has Brexit had on Northern Ireland’s position in the EU?

8.2. Membership of International Organisations and International Obligations

8.2.1. Would a united Ireland become a member of the United Nations, NATO, the Commonwealth and other international organisations?
8.2.2. Does the Queen have to be the head of state for a country to be a member of the Commonwealth?
8.2.3. How much would a united Ireland contribute to the budgets of international organisations such as the United Nations?
8.2.4. How would Ireland afford international organisation memberships?
8.2.5. Would Ireland have a seat on the UN Security Council?
8.2.6. Will unification make Ireland’s voice weaker or stronger internationally?
8.2.7. What principles would a united Ireland follow in regard to foreign policy?
8.2.8. What international legal obligations that currently apply to the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland would a united Ireland have to adhere to?

8.3. Foreign Policy and Representation

8.3.1. How would a united Ireland represent itself internationally through embassies and consulates?
8.3.2. Will diplomatic missions be shared between a united Ireland and the UK?
8.3.3. Would a united Ireland recruit staff from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to the Irish foreign and diplomatic service?
8.3.4. What size would the foreign and diplomatic service be in a united Ireland?
8.3.5. When will a united Ireland have its own diplomatic missions up and running?
8.3.6. How will I get help abroad if I am Irish? If I get stuck in Spain, will you rescue me?
8.3.7. Under the Good Friday Agreement provisions which allow dual nationality, would people living in Ireland claiming dual Irish/British nationality be allowed to call on the support of British embassies and consulates abroad?

8.4. International development

8.4.1. How much will a united Ireland spend on international development? 8.4.2. How could a united Ireland afford that level of funding for international development? Is this an affordable commitment?
8.4.3. What impact will unification have on existing international development programmes?
8.4.4. How can the Irish Government justify spending money on international development – why aren’t we spending this money at home?
8.4.5. What organisations receive the Irish Government’s international development funding? Will this change if Ireland is re-united?
8.4.6. To which countries would a united Ireland provide international development funding?
8.4.7. Will a united Ireland focus on gender equality as part of international development?
8.4.8. How will the focus on gender equality work in practice?
8.4.9. How will Irish people know that money being spent overseas by the Irish Government is making an impact?
8.4.10. How will we know that the ‘Do No Harm’ approach is being implemented?

8.5. Defence and Security

8.5.1. What opportunities will unity bring to Ireland in terms of defence and security?
8.5.2. What security risks would a united Ireland face?
8.5.3. What will Ireland’s overall defence and security policy be?
8.5.4. Can a united Ireland afford appropriate defence and security capabilities?
8.5.5. What do you expect the implications will be for the UK in terms of defence and security?
8.5.6. What defence and security assets would a united Ireland look to inherit during unification negotiations?
8.5.7. Will Ireland be able to protect itself against terrorist attacks?
8.5.8. Would a united Ireland present an access route to the UK for crime and terrorism?
8.5.9. How will a united Ireland ensure it has the capacity and technology required to comprehensively protect Irish interests at home and abroad?
8.5.10. Will a united Ireland benefit from shared intelligence?

8.6. Nuclear weapons and disarmament

8.6.1. Will a united Ireland sign the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)?

8.7. Defence Forces in a united Ireland

8.7.1. Will a united Ireland have its own army, navy and air force?
8.7.2. What size would defence forces be in a united Ireland?
8.7.3. What tasks will Irish defence forces be expected to undertake?
8.7.4. Wouldn’t a united Ireland’s defence forces be less sophisticated than at present?
8.7.5. What army will a united Ireland have?
8.7.6. What air force will a united Ireland have?
8.7.7. Where will Ireland’s air force be based?
8.7.8. What navy will a united Ireland have?
8.7.9. What special forces will a united Ireland have?
8.7.10. Where will Irish defence forces be based?
8.7.11. What will happen if the Westminster Government does not allow for the transfer of any of its armed forces personnel and bases?
8.7.12. Would Northern Irish personnel currently serving in UK forces be forced to join the Irish armed forces?
8.7.13. What about non-Northern Irish currently serving in ‘Irish units’?
8.7.14. Will an Irish defence force be attractive to both current and potential future personnel?
8.7.15. How will military service pensions be paid?
8.7.16. What will the terms and conditions of a united Ireland’s armed forces be?
8.7.17. Will being united protect Irish defence jobs?
8.7.18. Will there be Defence civilian job losses in Ireland as a result of Ireland unification?
8.7.19. How will Ireland develop its own national security regulations?
8.7.20. Will Ireland replicate the three UK Security and Intelligence Agencies (MI5, MI6 and GCHQ)?

8.8. Membership of Schengen, the Common Travel Area and Port Controls

8.8.1. Will a united Ireland remain in the Common Travel Area with the UK, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands?
8.8.2. Will the UK want to remain in the Common Travel Area with Ireland?
8.8.3. Could a united Ireland be in the Common Travel Area and have different immigration policies?
8.8.4. Would a united Ireland be forced to join the Schengen Agreement?
8.8.5. How would Common Travel Area policy be agreed with the UK?

8.9. Passports

8.9.1. What will the rules be on passports in a united Ireland?
8.9.2. When can I get my Irish passport?
8.9.3. Who will issue passports in a united Ireland?
8.9.4. How much would an Irish passport cost and how long would it last?
8.9.5. Who can have an Irish passport?
8.9.6. Will I need to have an Irish passport?
8.9.7. What would passports in a united Ireland look like and would it be valid for travel around the world?
8.9.8. I still have a number of years left of my British passport; can I keep it? Would I be able to renew my British passport?

8.10. Borders

8.10.1. How will a united Ireland protect its borders from terrorist threats?
8.10.2. Will Ireland have a sea border with the UK?
8.10.3. How will Irish police its international border controls at ports and airports?
8.10.4. Will ‘Welcome to Northern Ireland’ signs be taken down?


9.1. Healthcare and Social Care

9.1.1. What will happen to the NHS in a united Ireland?
9.1.2. Will the NHS be safe from privatisation?
9.1.3. Will a united Ireland maintain the current number of doctors and nurses in the NHS?
9.1.4. What will be the impact of constitutional reform on funding for medical research in Ireland?
9.1.5. How will unification affect the length of NHS waiting lists in Northern Ireland?
9.1.6. How would unification improve people living with lifelong conditions or chronic illnesses?
9.1.7. Will a united Ireland still have free prescriptions?
9.1.8. What will happen to free personal care in a united Ireland? 9.1.9. Will a united Ireland have to put in place new arrangements for medical training and education?
9.1.10. Will medical workforce representatives participate in pay negotiation processes after unification?
9.1.11. Will Northern Ireland continue to access services from NICE (National Institute for Clinical Excellence)?
9.1.12. How will a united Ireland agree the price of medicines with the pharmaceutical industry?
9.1.13. What will happen to blood donor services in a united Ireland?
9.1.14. How will a united Ireland organise organ donation and transplantation services?
9.1.15. Will I still be able to get specialist treatment in England?
9.1.16. Will I be able to get NHS treatment if I am taken ill while in the UK?
9.1.17. What will the law on abortion be in a united Ireland?

9.2. Mental Health

9.2.1. What supports will be put in place for people who experience mental health problems?

9.3. Health and Safety Regulation

9.3.1. Would the people of Ireland still be protected by strong health and safety measures?
9.3.2. Will a united Ireland access services from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency?
9.3.3. Will current legislation to regulate doctors, nurses and other health professionals continue to be in force in a united Ireland?
9.3.4. What will the offshore health and safety regime be in a united Ireland?


10.1. University Access, Tuition Fees and Cross-Border Flows

10.1.1. How much will it cost to go to a university, college or institute of technology?
10.1.2. Will the Student Universal Support Ireland (SUSI) grant be in place for all third level students in Ireland?
10.1.3. Would students from the UK be charged tuition fees in a united Ireland?
10.1.4. Will students from parts of the EU pay tuition fees?
10.1.5. Will other international (non-EU) students be attracted to study in a united Ireland?
10.1.6. Will non-EU/international students be charged tuition fees?
10.1.7. Will the Westminster Government’s policy on visas for international students continue to apply in a united Ireland?
10.1.8. How will applications for third level education be administered in a united Ireland?

10.2. Research Funding in a united Ireland

10.2.1. How will research be supported in a united Ireland?
10.2.2. Will a united Ireland have its own research councils?
10.2.3. How would the research councils be funded?
10.2.4. Will unity weaken university research in Ireland?
10.2.5. How will unity affect jobs of academics and those in related areas?
10.2.6. How will postgraduate study be supported in a united Ireland?
10.2.7. What will unification mean for the regulation of professionals – such as architects and auditors?


11.1. Housing and regeneration

11.1.1. What will happen to Housing Benefit in a united Ireland?
11.1.2. Will governments be able to do more to invest in affordable housing in a united Ireland?
11.1.3. Will my postcode change?

11.2. Irish Local Government

11.2.1. What will happen to local government in a united Ireland?
11.2.2. Will there be any change to local authority boundaries?
11.2.3. Will local authorities be autonomous and independent of central government in a united Ireland?
11.2.4. Will local authorities continue to deliver the services they do now?
11.2.5. Will there be any change to scrutiny arrangements for local authorities? 11.2.6. What will the impact of unification be on local taxation, such as business rates and council tax?
11.2.7. Will local government have more say on how money is spent in a united Ireland?
11.2.8. Will there be opportunities for greater local autonomy and decision-making responsibility in a united Ireland?
11.2.9. What will happen to the Regional Assemblies?

11.3. Fire and Rescue Service

11.3.1. Will fire and rescue services still operate in the same way in a united Ireland?


12.1. Law and Order

12.1.1. What benefits will unification bring for law and order in Ireland?
12.1.2. Will existing UK laws passed by Westminster, the Stormont Assembly and Dáil Éireann still apply after unification?
12.1.3. Will the independence of Ireland’s judges and prosecutors be protected in a united Ireland?
12.1.4. What will be done to remove the presence of paramilitary groups within communities?

12.2. Crime and Policing

12.2.1. Will the police still operate in the same way in a united Ireland?
12.2.2. On unification, what will happen to An Garda Síochána and the PSNI police forces that currently operate in Ireland?
12.2.3. Will the application process for joining the national police force change?
12.2.4. Where will police recruits be trained?
12.2.5. Will the police in Ireland work with forces in England, Wales and Scotland after unification? 12.2.6. Will I still call ‘999’ for emergency services?
12.2.7. How will Ireland’s police and prosecutors deal with serious and organised crime?

12.3. EU and International Collaboration

12.3.1. How will unification improve Ireland’s justice agencies’ work with their counterparts in the EU and internationally?
12.3.2. Will Ireland be able to extradite cross-border criminals to face justice?
12.3.3. How will a united Ireland deal with cross-border crimes like human trafficking?

12.4. Courts and Tribunals

12.4.1. What impact will unification have on Ireland’s courts?
12.4.2. What will happen to Northern Irish cases currently referred to the UK Supreme Court?
12.4.3. Will unification mean Ireland needs new courts or new judges?
12.4.4. How will tribunals change following unification?
12.4.5. What will happen to the income from criminal justice fines?
12.4.6. What will happen to the money recovered from criminals through proceeds of crime legislation in a united Ireland?

12.5. Legacy issues

12.5.1. What will be done to ensure justice can be achieved for victims of the conflict in Northern Ireland?
12.5.2. What can be done to improve supports provided to survivors of the conflict in Northern Ireland?

12.6. Prisons

12.6.1. What impact will unification have on prisons and prisoners?
12.6.2. Will the transfers of prisoners between prisons in Northern Ireland and England, Wales and Scotland continue?

12.7. Justice Workforce

12.7.1. How will police, fire and prison officer pay be set in a united Ireland?
12.7.2. Will police, fire and prison officer pensions still be paid?

12.8. Road Traffic Laws

12.8.1. How will the approach to drink driving limits change in a united Ireland? 12.8.2. What other benefits can unification deliver for road traffic law?
12.8.3. When will the different traffic laws between North and South be harmonised?

12.9. Drugs

12.9.1. How will a united Ireland deal with illegal drug use?

12.10. Gambling

12.10.1. What will the approach to gambling be in a united Ireland?

12.11. Firearms

12.11.1. How will access to firearms be controlled in a united Ireland?


13.1. Media

13.1.1. What will happen to the BBC Northern Ireland following unification?
13.1.2. What will happen to the RTE following unification?
13.1.3. What will happen to independent television and radio broadcasters following unification?
13.1.4. Will I still get access to BBC channels following unification?
13.1.5. Can Ireland afford a quality publicly financed public service broadcaster after unification?
13.1.6. Would the TV licence fee have to rise in a united Ireland?
13.1.7. Who will receive funds from revenue raised from the TV licence fee?
13.1.8. What will happen to UTV in a united Ireland?
13.1.9. What will happen to Channel 4 in a united Ireland?
13.1.10. What will happen to Channel 5 in a united Ireland?
13.1.11. What will happen to BskyB and other private sector cable and satellite 13.1.12. What will happen to TG4 and other Irish language broadcasting in a united Ireland?
13.1.13. What will happen to radio in a united Ireland?
13.1.14. Would the Irish Broadcasting Services participate in charity fundraising drives such as Comic Relief and Children in Need?
13.1.15. Would Irish Broadcasting Services have to re-join the European Broadcasting Union (EBU)?

13.2. National Lottery

13.2.1. Will the National Lottery continue to operate in a United Ireland?
13.2.2. Will I still be able to play the National Lottery?
13.2.3. Who will operate the National Lottery in Ireland?
13.2.4. In a United Ireland, what arrangements will be in place to distribute funds to Irish good causes? Will being unified enable the same amount of money to be generated for good causes?
13.2.5. How will Lottery funding be distributed?
13.2.6. What will happen to Northern Ireland’s share of Lottery funding for the arts and film and for sport in Northern Ireland?

13.3. Sport

13.3.1. Will unification affect who can compete for Ireland in international sports competitions?
13.3.2. Will there be one national football team for all of Ireland?
13.3.3. Will Irish football teams still be able to compete in FIFA and UEFA competitions?
13.3.4. Will Ireland still be able to host the Open Golf Tournament?
13.3.5. How will a united Ireland ensure that elite sport continues to secure appropriate levels of funding and facilities?
13.3.6. Would all Irish athletes have to compete for Ireland, or would they be free to represent the likes of “Team GB”?

13.4. Culture

13.4.1. What will happen to cultural items related to Ireland and held in UK national collections in a united Ireland?
13.4.2. Will the historic environment be managed differently in a united Ireland?
13.4.3. What will happen to World Heritage Sites in a united Ireland? 13.4.4. What will happen to the Crown Estate in a united Ireland?
13.4.5. What will happen to the National Trust?
13.4.6. Will tax incentives for cultural donations continue in a united Ireland?
13.4.7. What will happen to grants awarded under the Department of Culture, Media and Sport’s Listed Places of Worship Scheme in a united Ireland?
13.4.8. Will a united Ireland honour existing international treaties, agreements and conventions around culture and heritage?
13.4.9. What role will culture and heritage play in a united Ireland?
13.4.10. Will we have the power to reduce VAT on repair and maintenance work to dwellings in a united Ireland?
13.4.11. Will we need to give up specific Irish cultural and heritage archival documents or acquire them from the UK National Archives?
13.4.12. What will happen to services that are currently free such as museums and libraries?

13.5. The Gaeltacht and the Islands

13.5.1. What will be done to promote living and working opportunities for Gaeltacht areas and the Islands?
13.5.2. What will be done to support the promotion of Irish culture in a united Ireland?
13.5.3. What would the priorities be for Gaeilge in a united Ireland?
13.5.4. Will Gaeilge be recognised as an official language in a united Ireland?

13.6. Ulster-Scots culture

13.6.1. What will be done to support and promote Ulster-Scots culture and language in a united Ireland?

13.7. Tourism

13.7.1. What will be done to promote Irish tourism internationally?
13.7.2. What will be done to promote tourism to different parts of the island within Ireland?


14.1. Public Sector Pensions

14.1.1. Could a united Ireland afford public sector pensions?
14.1.2. What will unification mean for the existing rights of members of affected public sector pension schemes?
14.1.3. Could a united Ireland manage public sector pensions effectively?
14.1.4. What will unification mean for how pensions will be managed?


15.1. Welfare

15.1.1. What will happen to the welfare system in a united Ireland?
15.1.2. How will my benefits be paid in a united Ireland?
15.1.3. What will happen to Universal Credit and the Personal Independence Payment introduced by the Westminster Government?
15.1.4. Will I get the same benefits after unification?
15.1.5. Will I still need to go to the Jobcentre?
15.1.6. Will I still get my benefits on the same day of the week?
15.1.7. Will I get the same amount of benefit?
15.1.8. Will new forms of welfare be introduced in a united Ireland?
15.1.9. Will I need to be assessed again?
15.1.10. If I am from another country and move to Ireland, will I be entitled to benefits?
15.1.11. How will I apply for benefits in a united Ireland?
15.1.12. Will benefits change for disabled people?
15.1.13. Will work be an important feature of welfare and benefits?
15.1.14. Will the forms be the same for new benefits applicants?
15.1.15. When will the benefits system change in a united Ireland?
15.1.16. How long would the transition take to establish welfare administration for a united Ireland?
15.1.17. Even if welfare is more affordable now, doesn’t Ireland’s ageing population mean that in the long run welfare will become unaffordable? 15.1.18. How will a united Ireland afford higher levels of spending on disability related benefits?
15.1.19. Will immigrants and asylum seekers have access to the welfare system?
15.1.20. What will happen to the “bedroom tax” in a united Ireland?
15.1.21. Would the welfare system in a united Ireland tackle poverty?

15.2. Pensions

15.2.1. Can a united Ireland afford the State Pension?
15.2.2. How would a united Ireland manage State Pension responsibilities with an ageing population?
15.2.3. What will happen to my existing State Pension in a united Ireland?
15.2.4. What will happen to my pension after re-unification?
15.2.5. Will pension rights already accrued be protected in a united Ireland?
15.2.6. I’ve worked most of my life in England and have only moved to Northern Ireland recently to retire. Does that affect who will pay my pension and how much I will get?
15.2.7. I’ve accrued some State Pension in England, and some overseas, but none in Northern Ireland. I’m now living in Northern Ireland. How will my State Pension entitlement be calculated and who will pay it?
15.2.8. I live in Northern Ireland, but I work between Belfast and London for different employers. What will happen to the various State Pension pots I have accrued after unification?
15.2.9. Will it be difficult to transfer pensions to a united Ireland?
15.2.10. How will responsibility for pensions transfer to a united Ireland?

15.3. State Pension Age

15.3.1. What will happen to the State Pension Age in a united Ireland?
15.3.2. How will the decision on the State Pension Age for Ireland be taken?

15.4. Rural development

15.4.1. What will be done to ensure that the economy of Ireland is not focused mainly on the east coast between Dublin and Belfast?


Scottish Government, 2013. Scotland's Future: Your guide to an independent Scotland, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.


Kieran Harrahill is a 3rd year PhD researcher with University College Dublin and Teagasc, the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority. He is 24 years old and is from Co. Tipperary. Kieran has a BA in Geography and Politics and International Relations and an MSc in Environmental Policy from UCD. His research on Just Transition in the coal industry has featured in a television interview on ABC Television in Australia and has been cited in a report by the Stockholm Environment Institute. The emphasis placed in his research on ensuring that a more participatory approach is taken in environmental policy is highly relevant to a number of policy areas, including the co-creation of a new, shared and united Ireland. His Twitter handle is @kharrahill_phd

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